Extinctions > Woolly Mammoth

Woolly Mammoth

Background

Woolly Mammoths were a species of mammoth that lived during the Pleistocene Epoch and are one of the best pieces of evidence for a massive global catastrophe on Earth that caused the end of the last Ice Age. It was initially believed that the mammoths were hunted to extinction like all of the rest of the megafauna of North America by the Clovis culture. According to the modern theory of archaeology next the Clovis culture died out because they had hunted their natural food source to extinction.

However, recent geological evidence has proven that a massive comet smashed into Earth around 12,900 years ago (11,900 BCE) in a global catastrophe known as the Younger Dryas Cosmic Event. Evidence for this massive impact has been found from Mesopotamia all the way to South America and covers the entire continent and more of North America. In fact in light of all these new discoveries based on nano-technology we should reconsider the theory of Earth Crust Displacement that was proven physically possible by Albert Einstein. Now, in the 21st century the energy requirements have been reconciled.

Woolly Mammoth - Woolly Mammoths (Charles Knight)

Woolly Mammoth - Charles Knight

Einsteins only problem with the theory at the time was he said the accumulation of ice would not have provided enough weight and thus energy to initiate a shift of the proposed magnitude, as was the common held cause at the time. However, if they only knew the scope of the Younger Dryas impact I bet he would be able to reconcile this. In fact, the discovery of the nano-diamonds across a single geographical strata on multiple continents was relatively recent. Yet before this for decades many researchers had correctly predicted the exact date of the impact as well as all of the corresponding events.

In fact, one cannot look at the extinction of the Woolly Mammoth as an isolated event. The rapid and catastrophic extinction of the Woolly Mammoth must be looked at alongside the extinction of the Clovis people as well as all of the massive geographical changes that occurred during this period. The archaeologists who like to use the hunted to extinction theory appear to forget the evidence that mammoths around the world from Siberia in 1902 to recently in Mexico City died with their last meals still undigested in their stomachs. Given this evidence we really need to reconsider the causes of the end of the last Ice Age because as of right now mainstream archaeology offers no solid theory backed by evidence.

Origins

The Woolly Mammoth is also known as Mammuthus primigenius and is the last of the mammoth species. The first mammoths appeared in the early Pliocene Epoch and one of the first major species known was called Mammuthus subplanifrons. The woolly mammoth actually is descended from the steppe mammoth and split around 400,000 years ago in eastern Asia. In fact one of the most closely related modern species is the Asian elephant and has been considered in possibly cloning one of these great beasts and reviving their species.

The woolly mammoth is one of the most iconic species because it was one of the most well preserved. Unlike the dinosaurs, we are able to understand nearly everything about this creature because we have found so many completely intact specimens from Siberia to Alaska. Full skeletons have been found with teeth, dung has been preserved in the ice and even the stomach contents have remained frozen and undigested.

Woolly Mammoth - Mammuthus Comparative Sizes

Mammuthus Comparative Sizes

Mammoth remains were known about in eastern Asia before the Europeans realized it in the 17th century. For hundreds of years these massive skeletons remained the beasts of legend until George Cuvier correctly identified the remains as an extinct species related to the modern elephant. How it took humans hundreds of years to realize this makes me really wonder the effect that opium was having on Europe.

A woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) is one of several types of mammoths in the genus Mammuthus within the order Proboscidea. The woolly mammoth is essentially a hairy elephant with a large shoulder hump, a sloping back, small ears, tiny tail, unique teeth, a small trunk with a distinctive tip and two finger-like projections, huge spirally curved tusks up to 3.5 meters long, and spiral locks of dark hair covering a silky underfur.2 Mammoths are classified mainly on variables such as molar hypsodonty (height of the crown), number of lamellae (ridges on crown), and enamel thickness. History shows there has been much taxonomic splitting of mammoths, as well as other members of Proboscidea. It is likely that they are all descended from a single created kind.2 In general, there seem to be two main varieties of mammoths on both Eurasia and North America. The woolly mammoth is the smaller variety that generally inhabited the north. The second, more southern variety, from both Eurasia and North America can be lumped together for simplification and referred to as the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi).

Physical Description

In fact, lets take a look at the relations between the woolly mammoth and the African and Asian elephants that ancient commanders had used as face stomping machines of death. The woolly mammoth is about the same size as an African elephant and the males reach a shoulder height of between 2.7 and 3.4 m (9-11 ft) and weighed about 6 tons (6.6 short tons). The females had a shoulder height between 2.6 and 2.9 m (8.5-9.5 ft) in height and weighed up to 4 tons (4.4 short tons). A baby mammoth known as a calf would weight about 90 kg (200 lb).

Unlike their counterparts that thrived in Africa however, woolly mammoths were adapted to the cold environment that characterized the globe during the Last Glacial Maximum. They had a tough outer layer of fur with long guard hairs and short undercoat hairs to add further insulation. Their ears and tails were short to minimize frostbite and heat loss. A woolly mammoth could reach 60 years in age and their four molars fall out six times in their life. Their tusks were long and curved and the woolly mammoth could use them to manipulate objects in the environment as well as for fighting.

Diet

The diet of woolly mammoths was primarily believed to be vegetarian and they ate mostly grass and sedges.

Distribution

Woolly mammoths are found all over from western Europe towards northern and eastern Asia and into Alaska and the northern part of North America. Most of the remains are concentrated in the area of Siberia and the Bering Sea. A lot of mammoth remains have been found by dredging the continental shelves of Beringia and also the North Sea by trawlers which corresponds with the belief of scientists that the all of this area used to be exposed landmass. In fact teeth from mammoths and mastodons have been found at over 40 sites in the water up to 120 m deep which corresponds with the flooding levels associated with the end of the last Ice Age. It is very hard to identify the age of the bones recovered based on the method.

In fact, woolly mammoths seem to have populated much of the continent of North America that was south of the ice sheet. The mammoths are rarely found in previously glaciated areas so this leads us to assume its natural habitat was more of a tundra or permafrost. This also means that the former habitat of the mammoths at one time during the Last Glacial Maximum was not covered by glaciers or ice as it is now. This is also the period of history that is associated with the most ice in recent history so this leads us to wonder why one of the only areas not really covered by glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum suddenly became covered by glaciers during the period of the end of the last Ice Age.

Still on the North American continent some of the best preserved samples of mammoths have come from the hairless version called the Columbian mammoth that has been found in New Mexico which is now presently an arid, hot and dry desert. The mammoth would have never survived naturally in a climate like this during the Last Glacial Maximum so what occurred to radically alter all of these various climates?

In Siberia the woolly mammoth occupied the whole area uniformly from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and they are exceptionally abundant in northeast Siberia. In fact, during the period of the Last Glacial Maximum it appears that the entire area of the current North Pole was exposed land and that this was the highest concentration of woolly mammoths. Well this does not fit with the current picture that archaeologists paint of the paleolithic climate as according to them this entire area should have been covered in glaciers even thicker than the ones seen there now.

In keeping with the Arctic circle, tons of mammoth remains have been found on the Lyakhov Islands along with the other New Siberian Islands that are about 230 km north of the Arctic coast. There are also a lot of frozen mammoth carcasses that are found by eroding river banks along the shore of the Arctic Ocean.

Associated Fauna

It is important to note that the picture painted of a lonely pack of mammoths scrounging for scrub on the tundra is completely wrong based on what we currently know about them. The mammoth is not the only fossil even found in the permafrost of Beringia and all of the following fauna associated with the mammoth ecosystem have been found. This entire list includes:

All of these animals have been found together throughout the same mid and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and suggest that maybe this part of land was not always in the high latitudes. Most of these animals are associated with the same climates that we currently live in and a multi-mile glacier ecosystem could not have supported this level of biodiversity.

Conclusion

Based on the distribution of woolly mammoths and the associated fauna we can deduce that the paleolithic climate was nothing like the landscape we currently think it was. The North Pole is currently a frigid wasteland that harbors very little life and there is no way if there was more ice there would be an explosion of life. In fact the presence of mammoth remains in the extremely well preserving Arctic Ocean shows that this entire area was once exposed land. Again, none of this seems possible with the current archaeological model that suggests massive, massive glaciers covered the continents and forces us to revise what we think we know about the end of the last Ice Age.

The only over area of the world that displays a similar array of organisms is the Serengeti plain in Africa. The animals themselves tell us much about the paleoenvironment—a controversial subject.33 The diversity of animals was so great that there must have been a highly diverse vegetation.34 The only similar diversity of mammals is on the Serengeti of East Africa.34,35 Practically all the large mammals were grazers that ate a wide variety of herbaceous vegetation, mainly grasses. Based on the large numbers of healthy individuals, Beringia, as well as Europe and western Russia, must have been mostly one huge grassland during the ice age, called the mammoth steppe or steppe tundra (Figure 2).3,34,36,37 fig 3 Figure 3. Ability of animals to walk through deep snow or to stay on top of crusted snow depends on foot loading and chest height (after Guthrie).144 The sheep and wolf could not have tolerated deep snow or boggy substrate. To maintain a large variety of herbaceous vegetation on the mammoth steppe would have required a long growing season with warm soil and rapid spring growth.38 This contrasts strongly to the current environment where green vegetation does not appear in northern Siberia until mid June to early July.39 Ninety percent of the biomass of grass is in the roots below the surface, and the grass cannot grow until the snow melts and the soil warms up. Therefore, winters must have been milder with light snowfall. The growth pattern of the mammals reinforces the deduction of a longer growing season.34 The shaggy ruffs, heavy horns, long tusks, and enormous antlers are what wildlife managers would recognise as indicators of high-quality habitat with light competition and a long growing season.40 Open range with light snowfall during winter is also supported by the existence of several animals that are intolerant of deep snow, such as the saiga antelope, bighorn sheep, Dall sheep, and wolf (Figure 3).41 With milder winters and a longer growing season over an extensive grassland, it is likely that there were no significant areas of permafrost. This is because permafrost would have caused a boggy substrate in summer, making it difficult for much grass to grow. Further paleoecological evidence for a lack of permafrost comes from the existence of some animals with small hooves, such as the saiga antelope. This animal cannot manage on boggy substrate. Furthermore, there is plenty of other evidence that the climate of Siberia was once much warmer, but again this evidence is somewhat obscured by uniformitarian dating and pigeonholing the evidence into supposed ‘interglacial’ and ‘interstadial’ periods.42 Nevertheless, the better general circulation models demonstrate that the glacial climate of Siberia (assuming uniformitarianism) would have been colder (about 10–20°C) than today: ‘During glacial and stadial stages, the climate of Siberia was much colder than at present.’ 51 This deepens the mystery of why the lowlands of Siberia and Alaska were never glaciated! Except possibly on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean,52,53,54 the woolly mammoth died out in Siberia at the end of the ice age. Furthermore, the woolly mammoth and many of the other large mammals, including 33 genera from North America, disappeared on whole continents or went extinct. There are two main hypotheses to account for all this extinction at the end of the ice age: either they were killed by man in a great blitzkrieg slaughter, or they died because of climate change.55 Uniformitarian scientists do not know the answer to this, but it has been extraordinarily controversial for more than 200 years. At a recent mammoth conference, Alroy expressed his frustration:

Based on this evidence we need to reconsider the seemingly defunct theory of Earth Crust Displacement that was endorsed by >Albert Einstein. In fact, we also need to look at the recent discoveries made in finding the massive ocean that divides the upper and lower mantle and is 3x the size of the World Ocean that supplies all of the oceans we see on the surface. The energy created by a comet smashing into Earth in the Younger Dryas Event could theoretically have enough power to shift the entire Earth's crust about 30° according to Hapgood and Einstein.

A 30° shift in latitude would have the following consequences for pre-historic Earth if we were to reverse engineer the situation. The area of Siberia and the Arctic Islands would be pushed into the area of the North Pole while the continent of North America would be pushed south. This would force the glaciers to recede back to their comfort zone in the higher latitudes of the Earth and created the carved out effects we see in the geological record.

This would have had global ramifications however, as climates would be altered from all over. In fact it is known that Hawaii and Africa both had glaciers and archaeologists assume Antarctica had glaciers as well. However,

Extinction

Based on carbon-14 dating the age of the frozen mammoths is known with a pretty accurate precision. There were two massive periods of mammoth extinction, the first between 45,000 and 30,000 years ago during the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum and the second between 14,000 and 11,000 years ago which corresponds with the Younger Dryas Cosmic Event. The final extinction event would mean the end of the mammoth species as even though they existed in isolated pockets they were not adapted for the warming climate.

"Although skeletal remains lacking soft parts are known from the period 30-12,000 years ago, there is very little carcass material of this age. A tendon on a 22,000-years-old bone of a lion from Alaska is one of the rare examples. As we have already seen, this intervening period was a time of massive glacial advance, the ice sheets in the northern hemisphere expanding to their maximum extent about 18,000 years ago. There were minor, more temperate periods from about 45-25,000 years ago and about 12-11,000 years ago. It was apparently during these ameliorations that most of the known carcasses became frozen. This appears to be a climate-related depositional phenomenon, related to the amount of available water (which reached its minimum at times of glacial advance) and does not reflect an absence of mammoths from the areas in question. Under cold arid conditions, with little moisture to supply mudflows, carcasses would have tended ultimately to rot on the surface with only the bones surviving for potential fossilization. Under moister conditions summer mudflows could rapidly have covered carcasses lying in their paths, which became permanently frozen when the permafrost level rose above them the following winter."

Younger Dryas Cosmic Event

It is now known that around 11,700 years ago or 9,600 BCE the Earth experienced a global catastrophe in the form of a comet colliding with Earth. Nano-diamonds have been found in a single geographic strata layer across several continents along with other precious metals and carbon compounds. While some of the precious metals could possibly have terrestrial origins, the nano-diamonds could only have been formed by extreme temperature and pressure, conditions not normal on the surface of Earth even for a super-volcano.

End of the Last Ice Age - Cosmic Impact Event (Donald Davis)

Cosmic Impact Event - Donald Davis

Based on the distribution field of the nano-diamonds we can deduce that the comet had a significant impact on any species, human or animal that lived on the North American continent. In fact, it is hard to imagine the ramifications of such an event even in the modern era since we have experienced nothing like it. An impact of this magnitude would have caused earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and even a possible Earth Crust Displacement and the accompanying geomagnetic reversal.

What is extremely unusual in all of this is the discovery of a woolly mammoth in the deserts of New Mexico. At the Dry Gulch site that lies west of Ruidoso, New Mexico there was discovered the remains of a mammoth that died between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. Researchers are saying it is a Columbian mammoth which is a close relative of the woolly mammoth and suggests that once the dry, arid and hot desert of New Mexico was once a permafrost or tundra environment. At this point they are trying to discern how it died and believe it was either killed by humans or got stuck in an ancient cienaga and starved to death.

Woolly Mammoth - Younger Dryas Impact Field

Younger Dryas Impact Field

Well given the fact that humans would not just kill a mammoth and leave its carcass there to rot and the Clovis overhunting theory has been disproven we should look at this discovery in a different context. During the period of the Last Glacial Maximum there was no abundant resources like there is today. Woolly mammoths were the essential resources of the Ice Age and it is hard to contemplate that in our resource rich world.

Paleolithic humans would never go through the effort to kill a mammoth and just leave its body there to rot and be picked away by scavengers. Clovis humans used the mammoth bones for shelter, their hides for clothing, their tusks for art and even if they did not need shelter or food they would bring this to their camp for essentially spare parts.

Clovis Over-Hunting

Throughout the Pleistocene humans and mammoths co-existed in the environment. While humans would kill them for bones, tusks, tools, and material for homes there was always enough of these massive beasts to go around. While it has been proven incorrect we will still discuss the outdated theory of over-hunting. According to the old view the Clovis culture of North America hunted all of the megafauna to extinction, and then somehow they went extinct themselves.

However, this theory does not match up with the evidence as there have also been many samples of woolly mammoths dug out of the frozen ice all the way from Siberia to Alaska, places where the Clovis people were never known to have gone. In fact, while some people have tried to suggest the Clovis people migrated to America over the Bering land bridge it is known that they existed before this bridge was exposed.

Also, the artifacts found in Siberia do not match the Clovis artifacts found on the eastern coast of North America as they are not the characteristic bi-facial. Instead, the only artifacts that match the bi-facial technology of the Clovis people are from the Solutrean culture which was found in Europe. They are believed to have migrated to America during the period of the Last Glacial Maximum and this is greatly evidenced by the presence of Haplogroup X and the discovery of the Windover Bog People.

So could the Clovis technology have simply evolved from the Siberian technology? Well no because the Siberians used a completely different form of blade altogether. They would take a piece of bone and carve a ditch in the center of it. They would then fit a few sharp rocks into the crevice and it would become a sharp blade of sorts. This is nothing like the bi-facial technology of the Clovis people and is known to have been used for about 30,000 years. It is very easy to see the progression from Solutrean to Clovis however. This theory is backed up by Dennis Stanford.

So how can humans living primarily on the eastern portion of North America cause the extinction of a species on the northern portion of Asia despite the fact they probably could not get there easy. Plus the technology of the Siberian people does not match the Clovis who lived in the eastern coast of North America. Overall the Clovis over-hunting hypothesis does not consider all of the data

Isolated populations of mammoths also lived on St. Paul Island until 6,400 years ago and on Wrangel Island until 4,000 years ago. However, the Wooly mammoth was not adopted to the warming climate and eventually they all died out for good and became an extinct species.

Woolly Mammoth Specimens

The woolly mammoth specimens are spread out over two different geographic periods.

Last Glacial Maximum

NameLocationDiscoveredAge
Adams (Lena River) MammothSiberia179936-37,000 years
Beresovka mammothSiberia190039,000+ years
Shandrin mammothSiberia197142,000 years
River Indigirka woolly rhinoSiberia38,000 years
Selerikan horseSiberia196835-40,000 years
'Dima'Siberia197740,000 years
Khatanga mammothSiberia197750,000+ years
Fairbanks mammoth hairAlaska32-34,000 years
Fairbanks bisonAlaska195131,000 years
Fairbanks bisonAlaska197936,000 years

Younger Dryas Cosmic Event

NameLocationDiscoveredAge
Taimyr Peninsula mammothSiberia194811,500 years
River Berelekh mammoth remainsSiberia197012,000 years
YuribemammothSiberia19799,700 years
Fairbanks, mammothAlaska15,400 years
Fairbanks, another bisonAlaska12,000 years
Fairbanks, hoof of horseAlaska198117,200 years
Fairbanks, musk oxAlaska17,000 years

Woolly Mammoth Cloning

See Woolly Mammoth Cloning

In the 21st century it has been proposed that we clone the woolly mammoth through in-vitro fertilization of an Asian elephant. It would not be a true woolly mammoth but if enough usable DNA could be recovered in theory they could use a real elephants egg and the paternal DNA from a male woolly mammoth to great an elephant/mammoth offspring.

According to researchers this is infeasible because of the degraded state of the genetic material but this is not true. There exists technology and procedures that can replicate thousands of base pairs of DNA from the most unlikeliest of sources. The problem with cloning is a whole different problem in and of itself.

Sources

Sutcliffe, Anthony J., On the Track of the Ice Age Mammals, Harvard University Press, 1985.

Guthrie, R. Dale. Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe, 1990, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.

Pfizenmayer, E. W., Siberian Man and Mammoth, 1939. Blackie and Son, London.

Extinctions

Extinctions List

Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources